The Kangal Sheepdog is a dog breed of Anatolian people that has protected their flocks from malicious people and wild animals for centuries. They are known to have existed since Babylonians time. These dogs are used as war dogs and for horse and lion hunting. Various archaeological records, the archives of the Ottoman Empire and EVLIYA ÇELEBI's Travelogue has proven the existence of Kangal shepherd dog.
During the Ottoman Empire, Kangal dog was raised with their pedigrees. It was also used as a shepherd dog. After the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, the breeding of pedigreed shepherd dog gradually disappeared. It is estimated that the origin comes from Kangal district of Sivas province. However, it is possible to come across pure blood in Yozgat, Kayseri, Çorum, Tokat, Erzurum and Erzincan. Likewise, it is possible to come across hybrids with our dog breeds which are known by names such as Karakaya and Kızılkaya and which do not carry another foreign name like Turkish Shepherd in their blood. However, it is possible to find the first degree pure Kangal shepherd dog in Sivas or especially Kangal district.
- STRUCTURE OF KANGAL DOG
Kangal Dog's structure: It resembles a lion. Its most important feature is its curved and upwardly raised and annular appearance. The superior feature is that the tail of Kangal is curved upwards and is very rotational. The root of the tail is thick, the tip of the tail is not too thin and its colour is darker than the body. The root and upper part are black speckled, white or black stained at the very end of the body is considered a good feature. Blackness, as well as more or less darkness of the face is a particular feature of the race. The coarse head is large and high, jaw is thick and strong, teeth are very large. They have chin and nose of medium length, nasal part blunt, ears low and large, while fry flat, pubescent, wavy, medium-sized triangular-shaped ends adhering to the round head and drooping appearance. The eye area is black. Eyes are oval, in black and brown tones. The neck is slightly curved, strong and muscular, short and thick close to the neck. The body has a square shape from start to finish. The body is in light or dark shades of off-white to grey. The chest is high and wide and the upper part is curved forward. The chest is strong muscular, never fat. Kangals use this chest very well when fighting. Deep in the chest up to the level of the elbow, the abdomen is slightly slanted into it. In Kangal, the legs are quite thick, strong but not as much as the front. Kangals use their front legs when fighting. Feet are large, strong fingers are dished and black. All feet or above the knee are coloured in the body. Some have a nail on the toe claw. The front finger has 4 pieces and thick blunt claws. The fifth flat toe with no nail on the sole serves as a heel. Sometimes the claw can be double. That's a good feature. The claw is in the forefoot, but not in the hind legs. But not too much stranded. The fact that four feet are clawed is a good feature. The waist and back are of the same width from the top and are slightly darker than the quite wide body colour and sometimes have sparse black hairs. The fur is short and dense. Body colour varies from brown to steel. The chest may contain a white medallion. Kangal’s moles on his face and black stain on his upper palate are the guarantee of Kangal's purity.
Physical Measurements of Kangal Dog
- Body weight of specially groomed and adult Kangals
Males: 100 kg
Females: 75 kg
- Adult dogs in rural areas
Males: 50-75 kg
Females: 40-60 kg
- Vertical height
Males: 75-90 cm.
Females: 70-80 cm.
Specially groomed adult male can exceed 100 cm.
- Body length is 0–15 cm less than the tallness.
Kangal dogs have an unmistakable intelligence and a very touchy and sensitive soul. They are very brave, strong, agile and fast-running animals. They do the task at the expense of their lives. They can easily express their joys and sorrows. In fact, they reveal their feelings not only by their state, movement, gestures and gestures, but also by the barking in various shades. They understand words that express hardness and softness and know that they are praised and defeated. They understand well and malicious people immediately. They express their sadness with stagnation in their general condition, dullness in eyes, grieving appearance in facial features, laxity in their state and movements, and unwillingness to eat. The joy of the heart shows the state and behaviour. They are jealous of the people they love. They cannot endure the owner's love for another dog in front of them. They are very loyal to blood nobility. They do not mate with another dog breed while they are free in nature. It was found that siblings born generally from the same parents did not mate with each other. Due to these superior features, Kangal dog has managed to remain pure even in the worst conditions by not sacrificing race qualities and spirit structure.
4.CARE, PRODUCTION, REARING AND BREEDING SELECTION
A) Selection of Female Breeding
- It must possess superior race qualities.
-The body should complete its normal development, there must be a harmony between the organs that make up the body.
- There should be at least 8 nipples.
- They should not carry an inherited disease (Hip dysplasia) that may pass to puppies.
B) Selection of Male Breeding
- Must have superior race qualifications.
- Head and mouth should be large.
- The body should have completed its normal development and have a strong structure.
-There should not be an inherited defect that can pass to puppies.
RUTTING SIGNS AND MATING
The female dog shows rutting after a year of good care and nutrition. However, the complete development of the anatomical structure of a female is completed in the 18th month. Therefore, a female who has completed 18 months should be mated. The rutting animal makes restless movements that she is not accustomed to. Vulva swells and within a few days abundant and bloody, specific odorous vagina discharge begins. This smell can affect men from a distance of hundreds of meters. Rutting in dogs occurs every 6 months. A maximum of 21 days. Optimal mating should be done on days 8 to 10 of the heat. The male dog to be used for mating should not be injured by other dogs and should be taken to a closed place for three days with the female in order to get good reproduction from the desired dog. At the end of this period, the female becomes pregnant and no longer accepts the male and becomes tamed.
PREGNANCY AND BIRTH
The gestation period is 58–63 days in dogs. After the 5th week of the pregnancy, the dog should not be assigned and should be taken inside. These compartments must be in such a way that the animal can walk around. Pregnant dogs should be protected from extreme cold and heat, and they should not be allowed to run or jump. In addition, cold water frozen food, sour mouldy foods should not be given. Dogs should be given quality foods, but care should be taken not to over-fat.
Before birth, the place of birth should be clean and covered and laid with a good litter (straw, etc.). When the dog is going to give birth, it becomes cranky and even aggressive. During birth, the animal must be left alone. In Kangal dogs, they give birth between 1–3 in first birth and 3–10 in next births. In case of any disease in the mother after birth, immediate intervention should be performed. In the first three days, the mother dog becomes very jealous and does not let any of her puppies. Breastfeeding mothers should be fed very well during lactation. The pups open their eyes at least on the 13th day. The pups should stay with their mothers for at least two months. Mothers with offspring should be given daily milk after the first month.
Grooming is important as much as possible in Kangal dogs. The general condition of the daily animal should be reviewed. Eyes should be alive and with no secretion. The ear and canals should be clean, free of foreign substances and external parasites. The inside of the mouth looks pink, the tongue is light red, the teeth are firm and there should be no odour. The body should not have itching, external parasites, any injuries. At the end of this observation, if there is any disease in the animal, the veterinarian should be consulted immediately. As long as the dogs are healthy, there is no need to wash them often and even harmful to their health. Dogs do not have sweat glands on their skin and have a large amount of sebaceous glands. The sebaceous glands give the skin softness and shine. Excessive washing dries the skin, cracks it, dulls the hair, and as a result causes various skin diseases. Daily feed and water containers should be cleaned in closed rooms. Also the compartments should be cleaned twice a day.
5.MATERIALS USED IN DOG BREEDING
The structure and location of the shelter should be different according to the purpose and shape of the Kangal dog. Since they are usually assigned outside the home, they should be housed outside the home. Shelters are different according to single and collective growers. A single shed must be made for a dog. These huts should be made of wood and reinforced concrete. The huts consist of eating and sleeping sections. The roof part is inclined and there should be a protruding part. The roof must be covered with sheet metal, atermite or corrugated. There must be an adjustable door. These huts are usually flat inside, painted, should not have nail protrusion and splinter protrusion. In addition, according to the size of the animal will lie comfortably and must be in a way that will not be forced at the entrance and exit. A kennel 1 meter long 80 cm. high. Dogs will be accommodated collectively and changes may be made according to the animal size. These shelters usually have a yard where the animal can enter in cold weather. There should also be birth and mating departments. These sections are adjacent to each other under the same roof in the middle of a 2 m corridor, right and left of the corridor 3–5.5 m2 huts and hut height should be 2.5 m. The huts should be bright. The outer promenades in front of the kennels are 2.5x3 m wide and they are 180–200 cm high in order to prevent the dog from jumping. Shelters should be washed as often as possible, bedding should be changed every 10–15 days. Defects such as discharge in shelters, cracks in wooden parts and abrasion in metal parts should be prevented. Shelters should be cleaned daily.
II-Materials Used in Dog Breeding
Materials used in dog breeding are the feed containers, water containers used in the management of materials. These materials shall not be broken or spilled, must be made of rust-free materials. These materials should be cleaned and disinfected daily. The materials used in the management of the dogs consist of various materials such as. - Leather leash, - Chain leash, - Drive belt. - Binding chain - Mouthpiece - Brush etc.
6.FEEDING OF KANGAL DOGS
Dogs adapt to the people and the environment they live together. In this respect, dog feeding is not an exaggerated problem. Dogs are animals that enter the carnivore family, but that does not mean that the dog will feed on meat alone. Like other living things, proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals and vitamins play an important role in the nutrition of dogs. However, feeding with scientific methods is important in terms of health and development of intelligence power. For this reason, it is necessary to take care and care in the feeding of dogs that we expect from all-round tasks.
I-Feeding of Puppies
As soon as the pups are born, they find and absorb their mothers with their instincts. The pups usually open their eyes in 13 days. They start walking in the second week. As of the third week, their interest in the environment increases. In the 4th week, they drink the milk placed in front of them. Puppies should be given mother milk for 2 months. It should be weaned slowly after the second month. It should then be accustomed to milk and watery foods. The development of teeth is completed in 6 weeks. For this reason, very small pieces of meat and soft cartilage bones should be added into the broth, which is well cooked and soaked in bone water. From the 8th week onwards, it should be given as meat and vegetable mixed until they have completed their development. Feeding puppies alone with cow and sheep milk is not good. Since the mother milk is rich in nutrients and ingredients from other milk, these milks becomes insufficient. However, these milks should be supplemented with nutrients. Puppies should be given 4 times a day from 6 weeks to 3 months, 3 times a day from 3 months to 6 months, twice a day from 6 months to 12 months, and once a day after 12 months. Usually 250 g milk, shaken 1 egg, 5 pieces of sugar or 1 teaspoon of honey, according to the body structure is given in the morning and meat, flour and vegetable dishes from 200 to 300 gr. should be given until the dog is 8 weeks old. Breakfast should be repeated at 16.00 and lunch should be repeated at 20.00 exactly.
II-Feeding of Adults
The dog enters adulthood in the 18th month. During this period, a meal should be given once a day and up to 2 kg according to its size. 1/3 of this diet should be meat, 1/3 should be carbs and vegetables, 1/3 should be water. If the dog is too weak, 1 egg and 250 gr. milk can be added. Meals should be given to the dogs after duty and around 17.00 in winter. It should be given around 16.00 in summer. Kangal dogs also feed on a meal called yal (hot water mixed with barley flour is made into dough) 2 kg a day. Dogs should also be given 25 grams of meat per day in this diet. Adults should be given boiled bones that are not hard enough three times a week for the development of oral structure. In addition, broken, sour, mouldy, very cold and hot dishes should not be given to dogs.
III-Various Dog Rations
a) Ration to be given to 2, 3,4 months old dogs at 4 meals:
-300 g of milk
-500 grams of cereal flour (Barley)
-400 g meat
-200 g of vegetables
-5 g fish oil
b) Ration to be given to dogs of 5, 6, 7 months at 3 meals:
-350 g milk
-600 grams of cereal flour (Barley)
-400 g meat
-200 g of vegetables
-5 g fish oil
c) Ration to be given to dogs of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 months at 2 meals:
-400 g milk
-650 g of cereal flour (Barley)
-500 g meat
-300 g of vegetables
-5 g fish oil
d) Ration to be given to adult dogs surviving the disease at 1 meal:
-800 grams of cereal flour (Barley)
-500 g meat
-3 g. salt
-600 gr vegetable
e) Ration to be given to adult dogs serving in 1 meal:
-750 g meat
-400 g of vegetables
-250 grams of oat flour
-250 g of corn flour
Grain flour (barley)
-3 g salt
The rations to be applied in enterprises engaged in collective farming are as follows. For a feed of 100 kg:
These rations are prepared in powder or pellet form. It is more convenient to give ration 1 to dogs during pregnancy and lactation. Beginning from 4 weeks, this ration should be applied to pups starting from 25 grams per day and up to 150 grams in 8 weeks with the condition of gradually getting used to. However, this ration should be mixed with milk, water or vegetable juice. It will be useful to give 300 gr. as of 5 months and 600 gr until 1 year to the pups. These rations should be given to the dogs in the form of dry paste with water or boiled vegetable juice.
7- DISEASES, TREATMENTS AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES
a) Youth Disease
The patient develops fever, tics on the lip and cheek muscles, and sometimes tremors occur throughout the body. The gait is irregular and results in 20–50% death. There is no cure. For this, the youth (mixed) vaccine should be given when the pups are 6 weeks old. Dogs should be protected from moisture and air currents and severe cold, and care should be taken to feed them.
The causative agent is a single-cell parasite. Especially in puppies within 1–18 months, they are mostly outbreaks. Patients suffer from bloody diarrhoea, vomiting, high fever and rapidly attenuation. Veterinarians should be consulted for treatment. As a preservative, dogs' shelters need to be cleaned and sprayed frequently. Animals should be housed in dry and moisture-free places.
c) External parasites
They consist of flea, ticks and scabies. They cause various skin diseases and damage the animal's skin. For this, external parasite spraying should be made once a month until the third month, 2 times a month for each dog up to 3-12 months and applied once every 6 months after 12 months.
d) Internal parasites
They consist of Echinococci, Tapeworms and Ascaris. Echinococci live in the intestines of dogs. The causative agent is the larvae of tapeworm called Rkinococcus granulase. These larvae select sheep, cattle and humans as intermediate hosts and cause disease in their liver, lung and other internal organs called Echinococcus hlidatiidosus or cyst hydatid, which resembles hardened vesicles filled with water. There is no cure for the disease. However, can be prevented with measures. Illegal slaughter should not be allowed first. Tapeworm struggle should be done frequently in dogs. Stray dogs should be destroyed, food must be cooked and fed to dogs and cats. Tapeworm ascites share the food of living things in their bodies. They cause diarrhoea, bloody diarrhoea and anaemia. They also prevent the development of the animal. Dogs should be treated regularly against internal parasites. Internal parasites should be fought with the medicines recommended by the Veterinary Surgeon every two months when they are usually two months old.
It is a very difficult disease to treat. The causative agent is a virus. It is seen in dogs and all warm bloods. Patients may experience high fever, mouth drooling, abnormal attacks, biting, eating substances such as stones and wood, and even biting iron. A rabid dog must be caught and destroyed immediately without damaging the environment. A person who is in direct or indirect contact with a dog suspected of rabies or has been bitten by this dog should keep that dog in custody for 10 days, or if there is a sign of rabies after 10 days, that person should be vaccinated immediately.
8- TRAINING OF KANGAL DOGS
A-TRAINING OF PUPPIES
It should be trained between 0 and 6 months. After 6 months, the dog must be trained according to the purpose to be used.
Puppies should be trained at the following stages respectively:
a) At this stage, 0-6 month old puppies will be treated with training and exercise.
b) It is a training method to be applied to 6-12 months old puppies, during which the exercises in the first stage are fully reinforced, also the words of the command, physical strengthening exercises, and leash and propulsion applications are performed.
c) All programs in basic obedience and advanced obedience training to be applied to dogs of 12–15 months should be fully implemented during this period.
d) In these periods, special tendencies will be applied in the future for dogs of 15-18 months. In this application, dogs are almost conditioned to service. The basic methods of breeding are:
1- To become friends with the pup
First we have to convince our dog we're his friends. We need to get our dog an ID card. Among living things in the world, no other creature affected by the sound of voice, love, praise, rebuke, and even gestures. All dogs that have completed one to three months should be vaccinated and the vaccine should be repeated every year.
2- Naming the puppy
The first thing to do after you have established a bond with the puppy is to give him a name. This name should be monosyllabic and attractive. This name should be used against him at any time. After a few repetitions, dogs understand the meaning of each word and the purpose of the movement.
3- To ensure the harmony of the puppy to its home
4- Disciplining the natural needs of the offspring
Here, the animal must be trained to make the poop in the desired place.
5- Rewarding the offspring
When your dog makes a move we want, we have to reward him. This reward is like caressing the animal or giving a food or toy that he loves.
6- Punishment of the offspring
Punishment is either by reaction or by hurting. The reaction is generally a harsh tone, a serious expression and action to warn him. Punishment is the last resort. False and harsh punishments make it difficult to train the dog and even hostile to its owner.
7- Exercises to improve the sensory organs of the offspring
Exercises to improve the 4 sensory organs in dogs are:
a) Improving the sense of smell,
b) Improving the sense of hearing,
c) Improving the sense of sight,
d) Improving the sense of taste.
8- Adjusting the pup to leash and conveyor belt
After 2 months of age, the pup can be accustomed to the adjustable leather collar. He will get used to it in a few days. We should tie the strap to the leash within 3 months and take the pup for a ride.
9- Adaptation of the pup to the social environment
Puppies are just like children. They are curious about everything they see first, alive and lifeless. They even try to indicate that they want to know what it is by using facial expressions and gestures. And at the first opportunity, it definitely smells that thing and never forgets the object it smells for life. Because of these curiosity, dogs should be accustomed to the social environment in 6 months.
10- Habituation of the pup to the shed or shelter
Kangal dogs are especially fond of their freedom. For this reason, at the age of 8 weeks, pups must be placed in a cage or shelter and acclimated.
11- The offspring's refusal to eat by someone else
This is an important issue in dog breeding. When the animal is small, it should be accustomed to eating from its own hands and from its own container and should not accept any food given from outside. In addition, nutrition should not be neglected.
12-Abandonment of the bad habits of pups
The puppy's bad habits are:
a) Beating and distributing the surrounding goods,
b) Being belligerent
c) Shy and cowardly
d) Being spoiled and confused
e) Attacking living organisms
f) No barking. These bad habits of the offspring should be prevented for up to 4 months and necessary reinforcements should be made on the deficiencies or weaknesses between 4 and 6 months.
13- Teaching the words related to education to pups
After 3–4 months, go, look, no, stay, go, search, find, bring, take, and similar words can be taught.
14- Exercises about guarding
Guarding is an instinctive feature present in the dog's creation. Dogs also have a great sense of jealousy. In short, he protects his belongings, food, the house he lives in, and the people of the house. Therefore, we can deliver our lives and property by educating him further. Kangal dog develops in this way protects the people at all costs. He also takes this from his mother. A guardian dog should be introduced to his caregiver from the age of 2 months and tied to the guard post by slowly getting used to it. After 6 months, it should be tied during the day and released at night. Food and water should be given by the caregiver. Watchdogs should be taught the words like stop, no, hold.
15- Exercises related to shepherd dogs
Puppies that will be a shepherd dog should be taken to the flock with their mothers after the age of 4 months. Dogs to be taken to the herd are very courageous, agile and must be fed to be strong. Puppies that will go to the flock must not be oppressed. On the contrary, in order to increase the courage of these pups, self-confidence should be increased with various exercises. Thus, the ability to fight against wild animals should be gained.
B - TRAINING ADULT DOGS
Adulthood starts after 12 months in Kangal dogs. The program to be implemented in this period becomes more difficult and heavy. To this end, the puppy program should be performed without interruption, complete and patient, so that adult education provides easy and good results. Training for adult dogs should be done in two stages.
a) Basic trainings,
b) Summary trainings
Let’s take these trainings in order:
a) Basic trainings: The aim of the basic trainings is generally aimed at completing the order by the dog in full. It is better if the training starts early (6-7 months). Basic training is the basis of dog training.
1- Basic obedience training: Basic obedience training should be applied for 2 hours a day without boring the animal. Heel, lie, get up, sit down, no, stay, crawl, and so on. words are taught and practically made.
2- Advanced obedience training: The aim of this training is to have obedience trainings done by remote and free exercises and as a result to increase the effect of the caregiver on the dog and to control the dog remotely.
3- Support training: It consists of developing the physical strength of the dogs under the name of support training and providing general information training.
1- Physical strength training:
- Obstacle training to increase high jump power,
- Obstacle training to increase long jump power,
- Obstacle training to increase balance ability,
- Obstacle training to increase climbing training,
- Obstacle training that will increase confidence.
2- General Knowledge Education:
In this training, exercises are done to increase the general knowledge of the animal.
- Aggression training,
- Foreigners seeking training
- Search training in places such as buildings, banks, stores
- Short tracking training,
- Training of dogs getting used to gunshots.
b- Special Trainings: These trends are applied at 15-18 months. In this section:
1- Watchdog training,
2- Patrol dog training,
3- Hunting dog training,
4- Sheepdog training,
5- Narcotic substance search training,
6- Training such as reconnaissance dog training is provided.
Dogs who pass these trainings can easily do these things. Kangal dogs have been found to be a sought-after breed of dog that performs these trainings better than other dogs and performs the task better